The Dungeons of Moria

Robert Alan Koeneke
James E. Wilson
David J. Grabiner

Umoria is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or (at your option) any later version.

Umoria is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU General Public License for more details.

You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along with Umoria. If not, see

October 13, 2008

Table of Contents

The Character
    Character Stats
    Character Sex
    Character Abilities
    Choosing A Race
        Race Versus Skills and Stats
    Choosing A Class
        Race Versus Class
        Class Versus Skills
Symbols On Your Map
    Special keys.
    Command counts.
    Selection of objects.
    Command descriptions
The Town Level
    Town Buildings
Within The Dungeon
Attacking and Being Attacked
    Monster Memories
    Your Weapon
    Body and Shield Bashes
    Your Armor Class
Objects Found In The Dungeon
    Cursed Objects
    Staircases, Secret Doors, Passages, and Rooms
Winning The Game
Upon Death and Dying
Addendum #1: Experience
    Calculating Experience Levels
    Getting Experience
Addendum #2: Spells
    Priest Spells
        Priest spell levels and Mana
        Priest Spell Descriptions
    Mage Spells
        Mage spell levels and Mana
        Mage Spell Descriptions
    Using Offensive Spells Against Monsters

1. Introduction

The game of moria is a single player dungeon simulation. A player may choose from a number of races and classes when creating a character, and then `run' that character over a period of days, weeks, even months, attempting to win the game by defeating the Balrog which lurks in the deeper levels.

The player will begin his adventure on the town level where he may acquire supplies, weapons, armor, and magical devices by bartering with various shop owners. After preparing for his adventure, the player can descend into the dungeons of moria where fantastic adventures await his coming!

Before beginning your first adventure, you should read this document carefully. The game of moria is a complicated game, and will require a dedicated player to win.

2. The Character

All characters have six main attributes which modify their basic abilities. These six attributes, called stats, are strength, intelligence, wisdom, dexterity, constitution, and charisma. Stats may vary from a minimum of 3 to a maximum of 18. At the highest level, stats are further qualified by a number from zero to one hundred, so that the highest value is actually 18/100. A value of 18/100 can be thought of as equivalent to 19, and 18/00 (not actually used) is equivalent to 18. Because adventurers of interest tend to be better than average characters, moria stats will average about 13, and are further adjusted by race and class. Some races are just naturally better at being certain classes, as will be shown later.

In addition to the more visible stats, each character has certain abilities which are mainly determined by his race, class, and level, but are also modified by his stats. The abilities are fighting, throwing/bows, saving throw, stealth, disarming, magical devices, perception, searching, and infravision.

Characters will be assigned an early history, with money and a social class based on that history. Starting money is assigned based on history, charisma, and somewhat upon the average of a character's stats. A character with below average stats will receive extra money to help him survive the first adventure.

Each character will also have physical attributes such as race, height, weight, sex, and a physical description. None of these, except weight, play any part in the game other than to give the player a "feeling" for his character. Weight is used for computing carrying capacity and also for bashing.

Finally, each character is assigned hit points based on their race, class, and constitution. Spell casters will also receive mana which is expended when casting spells. Mana is based on Wisdom for Priests and Intelligence for Mages.

2.1. Character Stats

Strength is important in fighting with weapons and hand to hand combat. A high strength can improve your chances of hitting, and the amount of damage done with each hit. Characters with low strengths may receive penalties. Strength is also useful in tunneling, body and shield bashing, and in carrying heavy items.

Intelligence is the prime stat of a mage, or magician. A high intelligence increases a mage's chances of learning spells, and it also increases the amount of mana a mage has. No spell may be learned by mages with intelligences under 8. Intelligence also modifies a character's chance of disarming traps, picking locks, and using magic devices.

Wisdom is the prime stat of a priest. A high wisdom increases the chance of receiving new spells from a priest's deity, and it also increases the amount of mana a priest has. No spell may be learned by priests with wisdom under 8. Wisdom also modifies a character's chance of resisting magical spells cast upon his person.

Dexterity is a combination of agility and quickness. A high dexterity may allow a character to get multiple blows with lighter weapons, thus greatly increasing his kill power, and may increase his chances of hitting with any weapon and dodging blows from enemies. Dexterity is also useful in picking locks, disarming traps, and protecting yourself from pick pockets.

Constitution is a character's ability to resist damage to his body, and to recover from damage received. Therefore a character with a high constitution will receive more hit points, and be more resistant to poisons.

Charisma represents a character's personality, as well as physical looks. A character with a high charisma will receive better prices from store owners, whereas a character with a very low charisma will be robbed blind. A high charisma will also mean more starting money for the character.

2.2. Character Sex

You may choose to be either a male or a female character. Only height and weight are affected by a character's sex. Female characters tend to be somewhat smaller and lighter than their male counterparts. No adjustments to stats or abilities are made because of the sex of a character. Female characters start out with slightly more money than male characters to help offset the weight penalty.

2.3. Character Abilities

Characters possess nine different abilities which can help them to survive. The starting abilities of a character are based upon race and class. Abilities may be adjusted by high or low stats, and may increase with the level of the character.

Fighting is the ability to hit and do damage with weapons or fists. Normally a character gets a single blow from any weapon, but if his dexterity and strength are high enough, he may receive more blows per round with lighter weapons. Strength and dexterity both modify the ability to hit an opponent. This skill increases with the level of the character.

Using ranged missile weapons and throwing objects is included in this skill. Different stats apply to different weapons, but this ability may modify the distance an object is thrown/fired, the amount of damage done, and the ability to hit a creature. This skill increases with the level of the character.

Saving Throw
A Saving Throw is the ability of a character to resist the effects of a spell cast on him by another person/creature. This does not include spells cast on the player by his own stupidity, such as quaffing a nasty potion. This ability increases with the level of the character, but then most high level creatures are better at casting spells, so it tends to even out. A high wisdom also increases this ability.

The ability to move silently about is very useful. Characters with good stealth can usually surprise their opponents, gaining the first blow. Also, creatures may fail to notice a stealthy character entirely, allowing a player to avoid certain fights. This skill is based entirely upon race and class, and will never improve unless magically enhanced.

Disarming is the ability to remove traps (safely), and includes picking locks on traps and doors. A successful disarming will gain the character some experience. A trap must be found before it can be disarmed. Dexterity and intelligence both modify the ability to disarm, and this ability increases with the level of the character.

Using Magical Devices
Using a magical device such as a wand or staff requires experience and knowledge. Spell users such as mages and priests are therefore much better at using a magical device than say a warrior. This skill is modified by intelligence, and increases with the level of the character.

Perception is the ability to notice something without actively seeking it out. This skill is based entirely upon race and class, and will never improve unless magically enhanced.

To search is to actively look for secret doors, floor traps, and traps on chests. Rogues are the best at searching, but mages, rangers, and priests are also good at it. This skill is based entirely upon race and class, and will never improve unless magically enhanced.

Infravision is the ability to see heat sources. Since most of the dungeon is cool or cold, infravision will not allow the player to see walls and objects. Infravision will allow a character to see any warm-blooded creatures up to a certain distance. This ability works equally well with or without a light source. The majority of moria's creatures are cold-blooded, and will not be detected unless lit up by a light source. All non-human races have innate infravision ability. Humans can gain infravision only if magically enhanced.

2.4. Choosing A Race

There are eight different races that you can choose from in moria. Some races are restricted as to what profession they may be, and each race has its own adjustments to a character's stats and abilities.

The human is the base character, all other races are compared to him. Humans can choose any class, and are average at everything. Humans tend to go up levels faster than any other race, because of their shorter life spans. No racial adjustments occur to characters choosing human.

Half-elves tend to be smarter and faster than a human, but not as strong. Half-elves are slightly better at searching, disarming, perception, stealth, and magic, but they are not as good at hand weapons. Half-elves may choose any class.

Elves are better magicians than humans, but not as good at fighting. They tend to be smarter and faster than either humans or half-elves, and also have better wisdom. Elves are better at searching, disarming, perception, stealth, and magic, but they are not as good at hand weapons. Elves may choose any class except Paladin.

Halflings, or Hobbits, are very good at bows, throwing, and have good saving throws. They also are very good at searching, disarming, perception, and stealth; so they make excellent thieves (but prefer to be called burglars...). They will be much weaker than humans, and no good at bashing. Halflings have fair infravision, so they can detect warm creatures at a distance. Halflings can choose between being a warrior, mage, or rogue.

Gnomes are smaller than dwarfs, but larger than halflings. They, like the halflings, live in the earth in burrow-like homes. Gnomes are practical jokers, so if they can kill something in a humorous way, so much the better. Gnomes make excellent mages, and have very good saving throws. They are good at searching, disarming, perception, and stealth. They have lower strength than humans so they are not very good at fighting with hand weapons. Gnomes have fair infravision, so they can detect warm creatures at a distance. A gnome may choose between being a warrior, mage, priest, or rogue.

Dwarves are the headstrong miners and fighters of legend. Since dungeons are the natural home of a dwarf, they are excellent choices for a warrior or priest. Dwarves tend to be stronger and have higher constitutions, but are slower and less intelligent than humans. Because they are so headstrong and are somewhat wise, they resist spells which are cast on them. Dwarves also have good infravision because they live underground. They do have one big drawback though. Dwarves are loudmouthed and proud, singing in loud voices, arguing with themselves for no good reason, screaming out challenges at imagined foes. In other words, dwarves have a miserable stealth.

Half-Orcs make excellent warriors, and decent priests, but are terrible at magic. They are as bad as dwarves at stealth, and horrible at searching, disarming, and perception. Half-Orcs are, let's face it, ugly. They tend to pay more for goods in town. Half-Orcs do make good priests and rogues, for the simple reason that Half-Orcs tend to have great constitutions and lots of hit points.

Half-Trolls are incredibly strong, and have the highest hit points of any character race. They are also very stupid and slow. They will make great warriors and iffy priests. They are bad at searching, disarming, perception, and stealth. They are so ugly that a Half-Orc grimaces in their presence. They also happen to be fun to run...

2.4.1. Race Versus Skills and Stats

Stat, hit dice, and experience points per level modifications due to race are listed in the following table.


Racial abilities as compared to each other, with 1 the lowest, or worst, and 10 the highest, or best, are listed in the following table.

Half-Elf677646620 feet
Elf897739730 feet
Halfling101010101101040 feet
Gnome979928930 feet
Dwarf683595850 feet
Half-Orc353283330 feet
Half-Troll1111101130 feet

2.5. Choosing A Class

Once a race has been chosen, you will need to pick a class. Some classes will not be available to certain races, for instance, a Half-Troll cannot become a Paladin. For the first few adventures it is suggested that you run a warrior or rogue. Spell casting generally requires a more experienced player that is familiar with survival techniques.

A Warrior is a hack-and-slash character, who solves most of his problems by cutting them to pieces, but will occasionally fall back on the help of a magical device. His prime stats are Strength and Constitution, and a good Dexterity can really help at times. A Warrior will be good at Fighting and Throwing/Bows, but bad at most other skills.

A Mage must live by his wits. He cannot hope to simply hack his way through the dungeon, and so must therefore use his magic to defeat, deceive, confuse, and escape. A mage is not really complete without an assortment of magical devices to use in addition to his spells. He can master the higher level magical devices far easier than anyone else, and has the best saving throw to resist effects of spells cast at him. Intelligence and Dexterity are his primary stats. There is no rule that says a mage cannot become a good fighter, but spells are his true realm.

A Priest is a character of holy devotion. He explores the dungeon only to destroy the evil that lurks within, and if treasure just happens to fall into his pack, well, so much more to the glory of his temple! A priest receives his spells from a deity, and therefore does not choose which spells he will learn. He is familiar with magical devices, preferring to call them instruments of god, but is not as good as a mage in their use. Priests have good saving throws, and make decent fighters, preferring blunt weapons over edged ones. Wisdom and Charisma are the priest's primary stats.

A Rogue is a character that prefers to live by his cunning, but is capable of fighting his way out of a tight spot. He is the master of traps and locks, no device being impossible for him to overcome. A rogue has a high stealth allowing him to sneak around many creatures without having to fight, or sneak up and get the first blow. A rogue's perception is higher than any other class, and many times he will notice a trap or secret door before having to search. A rogue is better than a warrior or paladin with magical devices, but still can not rely on their performance. Rogues can also learn a few spells, but not the powerful offensive spells mages can use. A rogue's primary stats are Intelligence and Dexterity.

A Ranger is a warrior/mage. He is a good fighter, and the best of the classes with a missile weapon such as a bow. The ranger learns spells much more slowly than a mage, but is capable of learning all but the most powerful spell. Because a ranger is really a dual class character, more experience is required for him to advance. A ranger has a good stealth, good perception, good searching, a good saving throw, and is good with magical devices. His primary stats are Intelligence and Dexterity.

A Paladin is a warrior/priest. He is a very good fighter, second only to the warrior class, but not very good at missile weapons. He receives prayers at a slower pace than the priest, but can eventually learn all the prayers. Because a paladin is really a dual class character, it requires more experience to advance him. A paladin lacks much in the way of abilities. He is poor at stealth, perception, searching, and magical devices. He has a decent saving throw due to his divine alliance. His primary stats are Strength and Charisma.

2.5.1. Race Versus Class


2.5.2. Class Versus Skills

Class abilities as compared to each other, with 1 as the lowest, or worst, and 10 as the highest, or best are shown in the following table.


3. Adventuring

After you have created your character, you will begin your moria adventure. Symbols appearing on your screen will represent the dungeon's walls, floor, objects, features, and creatures lurking about. In order to direct your character through his adventure, you will enter single character commands.

Moria symbols and commands each have a help section devoted to them. You should review these sections before attempting an adventure. Finally, a description of the town level and some general help on adventuring are included.

4. Symbols On Your Map

Symbols on your map can be broken down into three categories: features of the dungeon such as walls, floor, doors, and traps; objects which can be picked up such as treasure, weapons, magical devices, etc; and creatures which may or may not move about the dungeon, but are mostly harmful to your character's well-being.

Some symbols can be in more than one category. Also note that treasure may be embedded in a wall, and the wall must be removed before the treasure can be picked up.

It will not be necessary to remember all of the symbols and their meanings. A simple command, the `/', will identify any character appearing on your map. See the section on commands for further help.

.A floor space, or hidden trap1Entrance to General Store
#A wall2Entrance to Armory
'An open door3Entrance to Weapon Smith
+A closed door4Entrance to Temple
^A trap5Entrance to Alchemy Shop
<A staircase up6Entrance to Magic Shop
>A staircase down:Obstructing rubble
;A loose floor stoneAn open pit (Blank)
%A mineral vein@The character

!A flask or potion?A scroll
"An amulet[Hard armor
$Money (Can be embedded)\A hafted weapon
&A chest]Misc. armor
(Soft armor_A staff
)A shield{Missile (arrow, bolt, pebble)
*Gems (Can be embedded)|Sword or dagger
-A wand}Missile arm (Bow, X-bow, sling)
/A pole-arm~Misc
=A ring,Food
sA skeleton

aGiant AntnNagaAGiant Ant LionN
bGiant BatoOrc or OgreBThe BalrogOOoze
cGiant CentipedepHuman(oid)CGelatinous CubePGiant Human(oid)
dDragonqQuasitDAncient DragonQQuylthulg
eFloating EyerRodentEElementalRReptile
fGiant FrogsSkeletonFFlySScorpion
gGolemtGiant TickGGhostTTroll
hHarpyuHHobgoblinUUmber Hulk
jJackalwWorm or Worm MassJJellyWWight or Wraith
kKoboldxKKiller BeetleXXorn
lGiant LouseyYeekLLichYYeti
$Creeping Coins,Mushroom Patch

5. Commands

All commands are entered by pressing a single key. Some commands are capital or control characters, which require you to hold down the shift or control key while pressing another key.

Certain commands may be preceded by an optional count, and certain commands must be followed by a direction. These conditions are indicated in the following table by `@' for an optional count, and `~' for a direction. If a particular command requires additional key strokes, then they will be prompted for.

@ aPrevious message reviewCCharacter description
c ~Close a door@ D ~Disarm a trap/chest
dDrop an itemEEat some food
eEquipment listFFill lamp with oil
@ f ~Force/bash item/monsterGGain new magic spells
iInventory listMMap shown reduced size
mmagic spell castingPPeruse a book
@ o ~Open a door/chestQQuit the game
pPray@ RRest for a period
qQuaff a potion@ S ~Spike a door
rRead a scrollTTake off an item
@ sSearch for trap or doorVView scores
tThrow an itemWWhere: locate self
vVersionXExchange weapon
wWear/Wield an itemZZap a staff
x ~Examine surroundings#Search Mode
zZap a wand<Go up an up staircase
=Set options>Go down a down stair
/Identify a character{Inscribe an object
@ - ~Move without pickup?Type this page
@ CTRL ~Tunnel in a directionF9Save game and exit
@ SHIFT ~Run in direction@ ~for movement

5.1. Special keys.

For many input requests or queries, the special character ESCAPE will abort the command. For the "-more-" message prompts, any of SPACE, ESCAPE or ENTER can be used to continue after pausing to read the displayed message.

5.2. Direction.

A direction is given by one of the letters `hykulnjb'. The relative position of the keys on the keyboard gives a clue as to the direction. The period `.' is a null direction indicator. This is only allowed in a movement command (to stay in one place) or in a look command (to look in all directions).

 \     |     /                   \     |      /
  y    k    u                  Home UpArrow PgUp
   \   |   /                       \   |    /
- h -- . -- l -       - LeftArrow --   .    -- RightArrow -
   /   |   \                       /   |    \
  b    j    n                   End DnArrow PgDn
 /     |     \                   /     |      \

Movement is accomplished by specifying a direction immediately. Simply press the appropriate key and your character will move one step in that direction. You can only move onto and through floor spots, and only if they contain no creatures or obstructing objects such as a closed door.

Other commands that require a direction will prompt for it.

Moving your character one step at a time can be time consuming and boring, so a faster method has been supplied. Typing a shifted directional letter will move you in that direction until something interesting happens. The stopping conditions are described more completely in the run command description below.

5.3. Command counts.

Some commands can be executed a fixed number of times by preceding them with a count. Counted commands will execute until the count expires, or until you type any character, or until something significant happens, such as being attacked. Thus, a counted command doesn't work to attack another creature. While the command is being repeated, the number of times left to be repeated will flash by on the command line at the bottom of the screen.

To give a count to a command, type the number in digits, then the command. A count of zero defaults to a count of 99.

Counted commands are very useful for searching or tunneling, as they automatically terminate on success, or if you are attacked. You may also terminate a counted command, or a Run command, by typing any character. This character is ignored, but it is safest to use a SPACE or ESCAPE which are always ignored as commands.

5.4. Selection of objects.

Many commands will also prompt for a particular object to be used. For example, the command to read a scroll will ask you which of the scrolls that you are carrying that you wish to read. In such cases, the selection is made by typing a letter of the alphabet; if you are selecting from your pack, you may also type a digit to select the item whose inscription is that digit. The prompt will indicate the possible letters, and will also allow you to type the key `*', which causes all of the available options to be described.

The particular object may be selected by an upper case or a lower case letter. If lower case or a digit is used, the selection takes place immediately. If upper case is used, then the particular option is described, and you are given the option of confirming or retracting that choice. Upper case selection is thus safer, but requires an extra key stroke.

5.5. Command descriptions

f - Force or bash.
The force command includes breaking open doors and chests, or bashing an opponent. Your bashing ability increases with weight and strength. In addition, when bashing an opponent, you will either perform a body bash, or, if wielding a shield, perform a shield bash which is more effective.

Bashing a door can throw you off balance, but this will not generally be a problem. Doors that have been jammed closed with spikes can only be opened by bashing. Locked doors may also be bashed open. Bashing a door open will permanently break it.

Bashing a creature affects both you and the opponent. Depending on your dexterity, you may or may not be thrown off balance allowing free moves to your opponent. If the bash is successful, your opponent may be thrown off balance, thus giving you some free hits or a chance to run. Huge creatures such as ancient dragons will be difficult or impossible to bash successfully.

A player automatically performs a shield bash instead of a body bash, if he is currently wearing a shield. A shield bash adds the damage of a shield to that of the bash, so it is more effective. Size and material both affect the damage that a shield will do.

You can apply a count to this command, but if you are thrown off balance, the count will be reset straight away.

C - Print Character.
This command allows the player to display his character on the screen. The character's history, equipment, and inventory list are also printed to stdout.

D [Dir] - Disarm a trap.
You can attempt to disarm floor traps, or trapped chests. If you fail to disarm a trap, there is a chance that you blunder and set it off. You can only disarm a trap on a chest after finding it with the search command. This command can have a count.

E - Eat some food.
A character must eat occasionally to remain effective. As a character grows hungry, a message will appear at the bottom of the screen saying "Hungry". If a character remains hungry long enough, he will become weak, eventually start fainting, and finally die of starvation.

F - Fill a lamp or lantern with oil.
If your character is currently using a lamp for light, and if he has a flask of oil in inventory, he may refill the lamp by using this command. A lamp is capable of a maximum of 15000 turns of light, and each flask has 7500 turns of oil contained in it.

G - Gain new spells.
To actually learn new spells, you must use this command. When you are able to learn some spells, the word "Study" will appear on the status line at the bottom of the screen. Mages, rogues, and rangers must have the magic books containing new spells to be able to learn them. Priests and Paladins are given their prayers by their gods, and hence do not need a holy book before learning the prayers in it. They do need the book in order to use the prayers.

W - Where: locate self.
The location command allows you to look at all parts of the current dungeon level. The displayed view of the dungeon is shifted to bring your current position as close to the center as possible. You may then shift the displayed map in any of the eight possible directions. Each shift moves your view point by one half screen. The top line displays a map section number, each map section having a height and width one half that of the display, and indicates the direction of the display from your current position. If you exit this command while you are not on the display, then the display is centered again.

M - Show entire map.
This command will show the entire map at a reduced font size. The area currently shown on screen is highlighted. This is especially useful for finding where the stairs are in relation to your current position. It is also useful for identifying unexplored areas.

R - Rest for a number of turns.
You may rest one turn with the null movement command. Resting for longer periods of time is accomplished by using the Rest command, followed by the number of turns you want to rest your character. Resting will continue until the specified duration has expired, or something to wake the character happens, such as a creature wandering by, or getting hungry, or some disability like blindness expiring. It is sometimes a good idea to rest a beat-up character until he regains some of his hit points, but be sure to have plenty of food if you rest often.

If you have accidentally entered in a rest period too large, or change your mind about the resting period, you may wake your character up by typing any character. Space is best, since if the rest ends just before the character is typed, the space is ignored as a command.

It is also possible to rest by typing the count first, and using either the Rest or the null movement command.

If you type `*' for the rest count, your character will rest until both hp and mana reach their maximum values. As above, you will immediately stop resting if anything interesting happens.

# - Search mode toggle.
The Searching toggle will take you into and out of search mode. When first pressed, the message "Searching" will appear at the bottom of the screen. You are now taking two turns for each command, one for the command and one turn to search. This means that you are taking twice the time to move about the dungeon, and therefore twice the food. If a creature should happen by or attack you, search mode will automatically shut off. You may also turn off search mode by again pressing the `#' key.

CTRL [Dir] - Tunnel through rock.
Tunneling (Mining) is a very useful art. There are four kinds of rock present in the dungeons of moria: Permanent Rock, Granite Rock, Magma Intrusion, and Quartz Veins. Permanent Rock is exactly that, permanent. Granite is very hard, therefore hard to dig through, and contains no valuable metals. Magma and Quartz veins are softer and sometimes bear valuable metals and gems, shown as a `$' or a `*' character. You can tell if the metal or gems are embedded into the wall by trying to move onto them. If you can't move over them, you'll have to dig them out. There is an option which causes magma and quartz to be displayed differently than other rock types.

Tunneling can be VERY difficult by hand, so when you dig be sure to wield either a shovel or a pick. Magical shovels and picks can be found which allow the wielder to dig much faster than normal, and a good strength also helps.

Tunneling can have a count.

V - View scoreboard.
This command will display the contents of the score board on the screen.

z [Dir] - Zap a wand.
Wands must be aimed in a direction to be used. Wands are magical devices and therefore use the Magical Devices ability of the player. They will either affect the first object/creature encountered, or affect anything in a given direction, depending upon the wand. An obstruction such as a door or wall will generally stop the effects of a wand from traveling further.

P - Peruse a book.
You can only read a book if you are of its realm. Therefore a magic user could read a magic book, but not a holy book. Warriors will not be able to read either kind of book. When the peruse command is used, all of the spells or prayers contained therein are displayed, along with information such as their level, the amount of mana used up in casting them, and whether or not you know the spell or prayer. There are a total of 31 different magical spells in four books, and 31 different prayers in four books.

c [Dir] - Close a door.
Nonintelligent and certain other creatures will not be able to open a door. Therefore shutting doors can be a life saver. You must be adjacent to an open door, and you cannot close broken doors. Bashing a door open will break it.

d - Drop an object from your inventory.
You can drop an object onto the floor beneath you if that floor spot does not already contain an object. Doors and traps are considered objects in this sense. If you have several objects of the same kind, you will be prompted for dropping one or all of them. It is possible to directly drop things which you are wielding or wearing.

e - Display a list of equipment being used.
Use the Equipment command to display a list of objects currently being used by your character. Each object has a specific place where it is placed, and only one object of each type may be used at any one time, excepting rings of which two can be worn, one on each hand.

t [Dir] - Throw an object/use a missile weapon.
You may throw any object carried by your character. Depending upon the weight of an object, it may travel across a room or drop down beside you. If you throw an object such as an arrow, only one will be used at a time.

If you throw at a creature, your chance of hitting the creature is determined by your plusses to hit, your ability at throwing, and the object's plusses to hit. Once the creature is hit, the object may or may not do any actual damage to it. Certain objects in the dungeon can do great amounts of damage when thrown, but it's for you to figure out the obscure ones. Oil flasks are considered to be lit before thrown; therefore, they will do fire damage to a creature if they hit it.

To use a bow with arrows, simply wield the bow and throw the arrows. Extra plusses to damage and hitting are gained by wielding the proper weapon and throwing the corresponding ammo. A heavy crossbow with bolts for example, is a killer...

i - Display a list of objects being carried.
This command displays a list of all objects being carried, but not currently in use. You may carry up to 22 different kinds of objects, not including those in your equipment list. Depending upon your strength, you will be able carry many identical objects before hitting your weight limit.

S [Dir] - Spike a door with an iron spike.
Most humanoid and many intelligent creatures can simply open a closed door, and can eventually get through a locked door. Therefore you may spike a door in order to jam it. Each spike used on a door will increase its strength, although the more spikes you add, the less effect each additional spike has. It is very easy to jam a door so much as to make it impossible for your character to bash it down, so spike doors wisely. The bigger a creature is, the easier it can bash a door down. Therefore twenty or more spikes might be necessary to slow down a dragon, where one spike would slow down a kobold. This command can be counted.

x [Dir] - Examine a direction.
The examine command is useful in identifying the exact type of object or creature shown on the screen. Also, if a creature is on top of an object, the examine command will describe both. You can see creatures and objects up to 200 feet away (20 spaces). You may freely use the examine command without the creatures getting a move on you.

Looking in a particular direction sees everything within a cone of vision which just overlaps the cones of the two adjacent directions. Looking with the null direction `.' sees everything which there is to be seen.

You are also able to access your monster memories with this command. If you see a creature, you are prompted to ask if you wish to see a short paragraph of information about your experiences with that creature. See also the section on being attacked.

m - Cast a magic spell.
To cast a spell, a character must have previously learned it, and must also have in the inventory a magical book from which the spell may be read. Each spell has a chance of failure which starts out fairly large but decreases as a character gains levels. If a character does not have enough mana, the chance of failure is greatly increased, and he gambles on losing a point of constitution. You will be prompted for confirmation before trying to cast a spell when you don't have enough mana. Since a character must read the spell from a book, he cannot be blind or confused when casting a spell, and there must be some light present.

o [Dir] - Open a door, chest, or lock.
To open an object such as a door or chest, you must use the Open command. If the object is locked, the Open command will attempt to pick the lock, based on your ability at disarming. If an object is trapped and you open it, the trap will be set off. This command can be counted, because you may need several tries to get a locked door or chest open.

p - Read a prayer.
To pray effectively, a character must have learned the prayer, and must also have in the inventory a holy book from which the prayer may be read. Each prayer has a chance of being ignored which starts out fairly large but decreases as a character gains levels. If a character does not have enough mana, the chance of failure is greatly increased, and he gambles on losing a point of constitution. You will be prompted for confirmation before trying to pray when you don't have enough mana. Since a character must read the prayer from a book, he cannot be blind or confused when praying, and there must be some light present.

q - Quaff a potion.
To drink a potion use the Quaff command. A potion affects the player in some manner. The effects of the potion may be immediately noticed, or they may be subtle and unnoticed.

r - Read a scroll.
To read a scroll use the Read command. Most scroll spells either affect the player or the area around the player; a few cases such as identify scrolls act on other objects. Two scrolls, the identify scroll and the recharge scroll, have titles which can be read without setting them off, and by pressing ESCAPE can be saved for future use.

s - Search general area one turn.
The Search command can be used to locate hidden traps and secret doors about the player. More than a single turn of searching will be required in most cases. You should always search a chest before trying to open it because they are generally trapped. This command can be counted, which is useful if you are really sure of finding something eventually. A counted search ends as soon as anything is found.

T - Take off a piece of equipment.
Use the Take Off command to remove an object from use, and return it to your inventory. Occasionally you will run into a cursed item which cannot be removed. Cursed items are always bad, and can only be taken off after removing the curse.

Z - Zap a staff.
The Zap command will activate a staff. Like scrolls, most staffs have an area effect. Because staffs are generally more powerful than most other items, they are also harder to use correctly.

v - Display current version of game.
The Version command displays the credits for the current version of moria.

w - Wear or wield an item being carried.
To wear or wield an object in your inventory, use the Wear/Wield command. If another object is already in use for the same function, it is automatically removed first; if you are wearing two rings, you are given a choice of which one to remove. An object's bonuses cannot be gained until it is worn or wielded.

X - Exchange primary and secondary weapons.
A secondary weapon is any weapon which may be needed often. Instead of searching through your inventory, you may use the exchange command to keep the weapon ready. For instance, if you wanted to use your bow most of the time, but needed a sword for close combat, you could wield your sword, use the exchange command to make it the secondary weapon, then wield your bow. If the sword was suddenly needed, simply use the exchange command to switch between the bow and the sword.

/ - Identify a character shown on screen.
Use the identify command to find out what a character displayed on the screen stands for. For instance, by pressing `/.', you can find out that the `.' stands for a floor spot. When used with a creature, the identify command will tell you only what class of creature the symbol stands for, not the specific creature; therefore, use the look command for this information.

If you identify the character for a creature in your monster memory, you are also prompted to ask if you wish to see a paragraph of information on those creatures identified by the given character. Several creatures may be identified in this way. Typing ESCAPE after the paragraph for any creature will abort back to command level. See also the section on being attacked.

? - Display a list of commands.
The `?' command displays a quick reference help page on the screen.

- - Move without pickup.
This is followed by a move command, and causes you to move over any object without picking it up. You can associate a count with this command.

= - Set options.
This is a free move, to set various moria options. The available options are:

  1. Cut known corners when running. This is on by default, and the only reason for switching it off would be if you had the search flag on and wished to look for doors in the extremity of every corner.
  2. Examine potential corners when running. This is on by default, and allows you to run along an unknown curving corridor. If, however, you are running from a creature, you may wish to switch this option off, because the creature will cut the corner.
  3. Print self during a run. This is on by default.
  4. Stop when map sector changes. This is off by default, but can be switched on if you wish to stop running whenever a new part of the dungeon appears in view.
  5. Treat open doors as empty space while running. This is off by default, in which case you stop whenever you run up to an open door.
  6. Prompt to pick up objects. This is off by default, in which case stepping over an object automatically causes you to pick it up. With the option on, you get prompted in all such cases with a description of the object to see if you really want to take it.
  7. Show weights in inventory. This is off by default: switching it on causes the inventory and equipment listings to include the weight of all objects. This may be useful to know if your pack is getting too heavy.
  8. Highlight and notice mineral seams. This is off by default. Switching it on causes quartz and magma to be displayed as `%' instead of `#'; also, it causes the look command to treat them as interesting objects. This is handy when mining. Setting this option does not immediately highlight all minerals, but only those which are subsequently displayed. To display all minerals, just move the map around a bit with the `Where' (or `Locate') command.
  9. Beep for invalid character. This is on by default. When on, the program will beep for most invalid characters, such as trying to choose a spell that you haven't learned yet. When off, there are no such beeps.
  10. Display rest/repeat counts. This is on by default. When on, the program will progressively display the remaining turns left while resting, and for repeated commands.
  11. Disable sound effects. Off by default.

The setting of all these options persists in your savefile, even after you die.

a - Previous message.
The `a' command will redisplay the last message printed on the message line at the top of your screen. A second such command will display all of the saved messages. You may also give this command a count to specify the number of previous messages to display. At present, only 22 messages are saved.

Q - Quit the game without saving.
To exit the game without saving your character (i.e. kill him/her) use the `Q' command. Once exited in this manner, your character is nonrecoverable.

F9 - Save your character and exit the game.
To save your game so that it can be resumed later, use the F9 command. When you die, a reduced save file is produced containing only your monster memory, and your option settings.

{ - Inscribe an object.
This command can be used to inscribe any short string on an object. Inscriptions are limited to twelve characters. The inscription applies only to the particular object, it is not automatically transferred to all similar objects. Under certain circumstances, moria will itself inscribe objects: if they have been discovered to be cursed or enchanted, or if they have been sampled without being identified. In this last case, moria does in fact carefully inscribe every such item.

If the inscription on an item is a single digit, that digit can be used to refer to it when using, wearing, or wielding an item from your pack. For example, if you keep a pick in your pack with the inscription 1, you can switch to the pick by wielding item 1 without checking your full inventory list to find out which item the pick is.

< - Go up an up staircase.
If you move onto an up staircase you may use the `<' command to go up one level. There is always one staircase going up on every level except for the town level (this does not mean it's easy to find). Going up a staircase will always take you to a new dungeon area except for the town level, which remains the same for the duration of your character.

> - Go down a down staircase.
If you are on top of a down staircase you may use the `>' command to go down one level. There are always two or three staircases going down on each level, except the town level which has only one. Going down will always take you to a new dungeon area.

SHIFT [Dir] - Run in direction.
The Run command will move you in the indicated direction until either you have to make a choice between two directions, or something interesting happens. There are options which determine behavior at corners, and at screen boundaries. More precisely, the conditions which stop a run are as follows:

  1. A creature appears on the screen, one already on the screen moves, or a creature attacks you or casts a spell at you.
  2. You move next to an object, or a feature such as a door or trap.
  3. You come to the end of open space, or the end of a passage, or a junction of passages, or a hole in a wall.
  4. Anything typed during a run causes the run to stop. The character causing this to occur is ignored. It is best to use a space, which is ignored as a command, just in case the run stops just before you type the character.
  5. Various changes of state, such as recovery from fear or loss of heroism, will stop a run.

Corners are more complex. A corner allows a choice between adjacent rectangular and diagonal directions. If you can see walls which ensure that the diagonal gives a faster traversal, then action is determined by the "cut corners" option. If it is set, then you move diagonally through the corner. This gives you maximum speed (as is nice if you are fleeing a hidden creature). On the other hand, this option should not be set if you want more careful coverage (as when you are searching) so that you take two moves through the corner.

At a potential corner, where walls are not yet visible ahead of the rectangular direction, the "examine corners" option is considered. If set, you will move straight into the corner, which will light up all the corner and so determine where you can go from there. This allows you to follow corners in new passages. If the option is not set, you stop. This allows highly cautious running where you want to stop at all potential choice points.

If you move off the screen while running, then a new section of the dungeon is displayed and the run continues. However, if the "stop when map changes" option is set, you will stop. Again, this is an option for nervous players; after all, there may be a dragon on the new screen.

6. The Town Level

The town level is where you will begin your adventure. The town consists of six buildings, each with an entrance, some townspeople, and a wall which surrounds the town. The first time you are in town it will be daytime, but you may return to find that darkness has fallen. (Note that some spells may act differently in the town level.)

6.1. Townspeople

The town contains many different kinds of people. There are the street urchins, young children who will mob an adventurer for money, and seem to come out of the woodwork when excited. Blubbering Idiots are a constant annoyance, but not harmful. Public drunks wander about the town singing, and are of no threat to anyone. Sneaky rogues hang about watching for a likely victim to mug. And finally, what town would be complete without a swarm of half-drunk warriors, who take offense or become annoyed just for the fun of it.

Most of the townspeople should be avoided by the largest possible distance when you wander from store to store. Fights will break out though, so be prepared. Since your character grew up in this world of intrigue, no experience is awarded for killing on the town level.

6.2. Supplies

Your character will begin his adventure with some supplies already on him. Use the Inventory `i' command to check what these supplies are. It will be necessary to buy other supplies before continuing into the dungeon, however, so be sure to enter each of the stores.

6.3. Town Buildings

You may enter any of the stores, if they are open, and barter with the owner for items you can afford. When bartering, you enter prices you will pay (or accept) for some object. You can either enter the absolute amount, or precede a number with a plus or minus sign to give a positive or negative increment on your previous offer. If you have previously given an increment or decrement amount, you can just type ENTER, and the program will use the last increment amount that you typed. But be warned that the owners can easily be insulted, and may even throw you out for a while if you insult them too often. To enter a store, simply move onto the entrance represented by the numbers 1 through 6.

If you consistently bargain well in a store, that is, you reach the final offer much more often than not, then the store owner will eventually recognize that you are a superb haggler, and will go directly to the final offer instead of haggling with you. Items which cost less than 10 gold pieces do not count, as haggling well with these items is usually either very easy or almost impossible.

Once inside a store, the store inventory will appear on the screen along with a set of options for your character. You may browse the store's inventory if it takes more than one page to display, and you may sell to, or purchase items from, his inventory. You can execute your inventory and equipment commands to see what you are carrying. Not shown with the options are the wear, take off, and exchange commands which will also work, but were excluded to keep the options simple.

Stores do not always have everything in stock. As the game progresses, they may get new items, so check from time to time. Also, if you sell them an item, it may get sold to a customer while you are adventuring, so don't always expect to be able to get back everything you have sold.

Store owners will not buy harmful or useless items. If an object is unidentified, they will pay you some base price for it. Once they have bought it they will immediately identify the object. If it is a good object, they will add it to their inventory. If it was a bad bargain, they simply throw the item away. In any case, you may receive some knowledge of the item if another is encountered.

The General Store
The General Store sells foods, drinks, some clothing, torches, lamps, oil, shovels, picks, and spikes. All of these items, and some others, can be sold back to the General store for money. The entrance to the General Store is a `1'.

The Armory
The Armory is where the town's armor is fashioned. All sorts of protective gear may be bought and sold here. The entrance to the Armory is a `2'.

The Weaponsmith's Shop
The Weaponsmith's Shop is where the town's weapons are fashioned. Hand and missile weapons may be purchased and sold here, along with arrows, bolts, and shots. The entrance to the Weaponsmith's is a `3'.

The Temple
The Temple deals in healing and restoration potions, as well as bless scrolls, word of recall scrolls, some approved priestly weapons, etc. The entrance to the Temple is a `4'.

The Alchemy Shop
The Alchemy Shop deals in all manner of potions and scrolls. The entrance to the Alchemy Shop is a `5'.

The Magic User's Shop
The Magic User's Shop is the most expensive of all the stores. It deals in all sorts of rings, wands, amulets, and staves. The entrance to the Magic Shop is a `6'.

7. Within The Dungeon

Once your character is adequately supplied with food, light, armor, and weapons, he is ready to enter the dungeon. Move on top of the `>' symbol and use the down `>' command. Your character enters a maze of interconnecting staircases and finally passes through a one-way door. He is now on the first level of the dungeon (50 feet), and must survive many horrible and challenging encounters to find the treasure lying about.

There are two sources for light once inside the dungeon: permanent light which has been magically placed within rooms, and a light source carried by the player. If neither is present, the character will be unable to map or see any attackers. Lack of light will also affect searching, picking locks, and disarming.

A character must wield a torch or lamp in order to supply his own light. Once a torch or lamp has only 50 or less turns left before burning out, the message "Your light is growing faint" will be displayed at random intervals. Once a torch is burnt out, it is useless and can be dropped. A lamp or lantern can be refilled with oil by using the Fill `F' command. You must of course be carrying extra oil to refill a lantern.

8. Attacking and Being Attacked

Attacking is simple in moria. If you move into a creature, you attack it. You can attack from a distance by firing a missile, or by magical means such as zapping a wand. Creatures attack in the same way; if they move into you, they attack you. Some creatures can also cast spells from a distance, and others can breathe fire or worse on you from a distance.

Creatures moving in walls can not be attacked by wands and other magic attacks normally stopped by walls. You can attack a creature in a wall normally though by trying to move into the wall space containing the creature. However, in order to attack an invisible creature in a wall, you must tunnel into the wall containing the creature. If you just try to move into the wall, you will bump your head and look quite silly.

If you are wielding a weapon, the damage for the weapon is used when you hit a creature. Otherwise, you get two fist strikes. Very strong creatures can do a lot of damage with their fists... You may have a primary weapon, and a secondary weapon which is kept on your belt or shoulder for immediate use. You can switch between your primary and secondary weapons with the exchange command. Be sure to wield the proper weapon when fighting. Hitting a dragon over the head with a bow will simply make him mad, and get you killed.

Missile weapons, such as bows, can be wielded, and then the proper missile, in this case an arrow, can be fired across the room into a target. Missiles can be used without the proper missile weapon, but used together they have a greater range and do far more damage.

Hits and misses are determined by ability to hit versus armor class. A hit is a strike that does some damage; a miss may in fact reach a target, but fails to do any damage. Higher armor classes make it harder to do damage, and so lead to more misses.

8.1. Monster Memories

There are hundreds of different creatures in the mines of moria, many of which look the same on the screen. The exact species of a creature can be discovered by looking at it. It is also very difficult to keep track of the capabilities of various creatures. Rather than forcing you to keep notes, moria automatically keeps track of your experiences with a particular creature. This is called the monster memory. Your monster memory recalls the particular attacks of each creature which you have suffered, as well as recalling if you have observed them to multiply or move erratically, or drop treasure, or many other attributes.

If you have killed enough of a particular creature, or suffered enough attacks, recalling the monster memory may also provide you with information not otherwise available, such as armor class or hit dice. These are not explained, but may be useful to give the relative danger of each creature. This memory can be passed on to a new character even after you die, by means of a reduced save file.

8.2. Your Weapon

Carrying a weapon in your backpack does you no good. You must wield a weapon before it can be used in a fight. A secondary weapon can be kept by wielding it and then using the exchange command. A secondary weapon is not in use, but simply ready to be switched with the current weapon if needed.

Weapons have two main characteristics, their ability to hit and their ability to do damage, expressed as `(+#,+#)'. A normal weapon would be `(+0,+0)'. Many weapons in moria have magical bonuses to hit and/or do damage. Some weapons are cursed, and have penalties that hurt the player. Cursed weapons cannot be unwielded until the curse is lifted.

Moria assumes that your youth in the rough environment near the dungeons has taught you the relative merits of different weapons, and displays as part of their description the damage dice which define their capabilities. The ability to damage is added to the dice roll for that weapon. The dice used for a given weapon is displayed as `#d#'. The first number indicates how many dice to roll, and the second indicates how many sides they have. A "2d6" weapon will give damage from 2 to 12, plus any damage bonus. The weight of a weapon is also a consideration. Heavy weapons may hit harder, but they are also harder to use. Depending on your strength and the weight of the weapon, you may get several hits in one turn.

Missile booster weapons, such as bows, have their characteristics added to those of the missile used, if the proper weapon/missile combination is used. Also, these weapons will multiply the base damage of the missile by a number from 2 to 4, depending on the strength of the weapon. This multiplier is displayed as `(x#)'.

Although you receive any magical bonuses an unidentified weapon may possess when you wield it, those bonuses will not be added in to the displayed values of to-hit and to-dam on your character sheet. You must identify the weapon before the displayed values reflect the real values used.

Finally, some rare weapons have special abilities. These are called ego weapons, and are feared by great and meek. An ego sword must be wielded to receive benefit of its abilities.

Special weapons are denoted by the following abbreviations:

DF - Defender.
A magical weapon that helps the wielder defend himself, thus increasing his/her armor class, and protecting him/her against damage from fire, frost, acid, lightning, and falls. This weapon also will increase your stealth, let you see invisible creatures, protect you from paralyzation attacks, and help you regenerate hit points and mana faster. As a result of the regeneration ability, you will use up food faster than normal while wielding such a weapon.

FB - Frost Brand.
A magical weapon of ice that delivers a cold critical to heat based creatures. It will inflict one and a half times the normal damage when used against a heat based creature.

FT - Flame Tongue.
A magical weapon of flame that delivers a heat critical to cold based creatures. It will inflict one and a half times the normal damage when used against cold based or inflammable creatures.

HA - Holy Avenger.
A Holy Avenger is one of the most powerful of weapons. A Holy Avenger will increase your strength and your armor class. This weapon will do extra damage when used against evil and undead creatures, and will also give you the ability to see invisible creatures.

SA - Slay Animal.
A Slay Animal weapon is a special purpose weapon whose sole intent is to destroy all the dangerous animals in the world. An animal is any creature natural to the world. Therefore an orc would not be an animal, but a giant snake would be. This will inflict twice the normal amount of damage when used against an animal.

SD - Slay Dragon.
A Slay Dragon weapon is a special purpose weapon whose sole intent is to destroy dragon-kind. Therefore, when used against a dragon, the amount of damage done is four times the normal amount.

SE - Slay Evil.
A Slay Evil weapon is a special purpose weapon whose sole intent is to destroy all forms of evil. When used against an evil creature, either alive or undead, the damage done is twice the normal amount.

SU - Slay Undead.
A Slay Undead weapon is a special purpose weapon whose sole intent is to destroy all forms of undead. This weapon is hated and feared by the intelligent undead, for a single blow from this weapon will inflict three times the normal amount of damage. This weapon also gives you the ability to see invisible creatures, which is especially useful against undead, since many of them are normally invisible.

8.3. Body and Shield Bashes

Weight is the primary factor in being able to bash something, but strength plays a role too. After bashing, a character may be off balance for several rounds depending upon his dexterity.

Doors can be broken down by bashing them. Once a door is bashed open, it is forever useless and cannot be closed.

Chests too may be bashed open, but be warned that the careless smashing of a chest often ruins the contents. Bashing open a chest will not disarm any traps it may contain, but does allow the strong and ignorant to see what is inside.

Finally, a creature may be bashed. If a shield is currently being worn, the bash is a shield bash and will do more damage. In either case, a bash may throw an opponent off balance for a number of rounds, allowing a player to get in a free hit or more. If the player is thrown off balance, his opponent may get free hits on him. This is a risky attack.

8.4. Your Armor Class

Armor class is a number that describes the amount and the quality of armor being worn. Armor class will generally run from about 0 to 60, but could become negative or greater than 60 in rare cases.

The larger your armor class, the more protective it is. A negative armor class would actually help get you hit. Armor protects you in three manners. One, it makes you harder to be hit for damage. A hit for no damage is the same as a miss. Two, good armor will absorb some of the damage that your character would have taken. An armor class of 30 would absorb 15% of any damage meant for him. Three, acid damage is reduced by wearing body armor. It is obvious that a high armor class is a must for surviving the lower levels of moria.

Each piece of armor has an armor class adjustment, and a magical bonus. Armor bought in town will have these values displayed with its description. Armor that is found within the dungeon must be identified before these values will be displayed. All armor always has the base armor class displayed, to which the bonus is added. It is always possible to figure this out anyway, by watching the effect it has on your displayed armor class.

Armor class values are always displayed between a set of brackets as `[#]' or `[#,+#]'. The first value is the armor class of the item. The second number is the magical bonus of the item which is only displayed if known, and will always have a sign preceding the value. There are a few cases where the form `[+#]' is used, meaning the object has no armor class, only a magical armor bonus if worn. Body armor may also have a (-#) displayed in parentheses; this is a penalty to hit, because the bulk of the armor makes it more difficult to swing a weapon freely.

Some pieces of armor will possess special abilities denoted by the following abbreviations:

RA - Resist Acid.
A character using such an object will take only one-third normal damage from any acid thrown upon him. In addition, armor so enchanted will resist the acid's effects and not be damaged by it.

RC - Resist Cold.
A character using a resist cold object will take only one-third damage from frost and cold.

RF - Resist Fire.
A character using a resist fire object will take only one-third damage from heat and fire.

RL - Resist Lightning.
A character using a resist lightning object will take only one-third damage from electrical attacks.

R - Resistance.
A character wearing armor with this ability will have resistance to Acid, Cold, Fire, and Lightning as explained in each part above.

8.5. Crowns

Some crowns also have special magical abilities that improve your chances in a battle.

Crown of Might
This is the great crown of the warriors. The wearer will have an increased strength, dexterity, and constitution, and will also be immune to any foe's attempt to slow or paralyze him or her.

Crown of the Magi
This is the great crown of the wizards. The wearer will have an increased intelligence, and will also be given resistance against fire, frost, acid, and lightning.

Crown of Lordliness
This is the great crown of the priests. The wearer will have an increased wisdom and charisma.

Crown of Seeing
This is the great crown of the rogues. The wearer will be able to see even invisible creatures, and will have an increased ability to locate traps and secret doors.

Crown of Regeneration
This crown will help you regenerate hit points and mana more quickly than normal, allowing you to fight longer before needing to rest. You will use food faster than normal while wearing this crown because of the regenerative effects.

Crown of Beauty
This crown looks impressive, and will increase your charisma, but is otherwise not useful.

9. Objects Found In The Dungeon

The mines are full of objects just waiting to be picked up and used. How did they get there? Well, the main source for useful items are all the foolish adventurers that proceeded into the dungeon before you. They get killed, and the helpful creatures scatter the various treasure throughout the dungeon. Most cursed items are placed there by the joyful evil sorcerers, who enjoy a good joke when it gets you killed.

You pick up objects by moving on top of them. You can carry up to 22 different items in your backpack while wearing and wielding many others. Although you are limited to 22 different items, you may be carrying several items of each kind, restricted only by the amount of weight your character can carry. Your weight limit is determined by your strength. Only one object may occupy a given floor location, which may or may not also contain one creature. Doors, traps, and staircases are considered objects for this purpose.

If you try to carry more weight than your limit, you will move more slowly than normal until you drop the extra weight. If picking up an object would take you over your weight limit, then you will be asked whether you really want to pick it up. It is a good idea to leave the object alone if you are fleeing from a monster.

Many objects found within the dungeon have special commands for their use. Wands and staffs must be Zapped, scrolls must be Read, and potions must be Quaffed. In any case, you must first be able to carry an object before you can use it. Some objects, such as chests, are very complex. Chests contain other objects and may be trapped, and/or locked. Read the list of player commands carefully for a further understanding of chests.

One item in particular will be discussed here. The scroll of "Word-of-Recall" can be found within the dungeon, or bought at the temple in town. It acts in two manners, depending upon your current location. If read within the dungeon, it will teleport you back to town. If read in town, it will teleport you back down to the deepest level of the dungeon on which your character has previously been. This makes the scroll very useful for getting back to the deeper levels of moria. Once the scroll has been read, it takes a while for the spell to act, so don't expect it to save you in a crisis.

The game provides some automatic inscriptions to help you keep track of your possessions. Wands and staves which are known to be empty will be inscribed with "empty". Objects which have been tried at least once, but haven't been identified yet will be inscribed with "tried". Cursed objects are inscribed with "damned". Also, occasionally you will notice that something in your inventory or equipment list seems to be magical. High level characters are much more likely to notice this than beginning characters. When you do notice this, the item in question will be inscribed with "magik".

And lastly, a final warning: not all objects are what they seem. Skeletons lying peacefully about the dungeon have been known to get up...

9.1. Cursed Objects

Some objects, mainly armor and weapons, have had curses laid upon them. These horrible objects will look like any other normal item, but will detract from your character's stats or abilities if worn. They will also be impossible to remove until a remove curse is done.

If you wear or wield a cursed item, you will immediately feel something wrong. The item will also be inscribed "damned".

9.2. Mining

Much of the treasure within the dungeon can be found only by mining it out of the walls. Many rich strikes exist within each level, but must be found and mined. Quartz veins are the richest, yielding the most metals and gems, but magma veins will have some hordes hidden within.

Mining is virtually impossible without a pick or shovel. Picks and shovels have an additional magical ability expressed as `(+#)'. The higher the number, the better the magical digging ability of the tool. A pick or shovel also has plusses to hit and damage, and can be used as a weapon.

When a vein of quartz or magma is located, the character should wield his pick or shovel and begin digging out a section. When that section is removed, he should locate another section of the vein, and begin the process again. Since granite rock is much harder to dig through, it is much faster to follow the vein exactly and dig around the granite. There is an option for highlighting magma and quartz.

If the character has a scroll or staff of treasure location, he can immediately locate all strikes of treasure within a vein shown on the screen. This makes mining much easier and more profitable.

It is sometimes possible to get a character trapped within the dungeon by using various magical spells and items. So it is a very good idea to always carry some kind of digging tool, even when you are not planning on tunneling for treasure.

9.3. Staircases, Secret Doors, Passages, and Rooms

Staircases are the manner in which you get deeper, or climb out of the dungeon. The symbols for the up and down staircases are the same as the commands to use them. A `<' represents an up staircase and a `>' represents a down staircase. You must move your character over the staircase before you can use them.

Each level has at least one up staircase, and at least two down staircases. There are no exceptions to this rule. You may have trouble finding some well hidden secret doors, but the stairs are there.

Many secret doors are used within the dungeon to confuse and demoralize adventurers foolish enough to enter. But with some luck, and lots of concentration, you can find these secret doors. Secret doors will sometimes hide rooms or corridors, or even entire sections of that level of the dungeon. Sometimes they simply hide small empty closets or even dead ends.

Creatures in the dungeon will generally know and use these secret doors. If they leave one open, you will be able to go right through it. If they close it behind them you will have to search for the catch first. Once a secret door has been discovered by you, it is drawn as a known door and no more searching will be required to use it.

10. Winning The Game

Once your character has progressed into killing dragons with but a mean glance and snap of his fingers, he may be ready to take on the Balrog. The Balrog will appear on most levels after level 49, so don't go down there until you are ready for him.

The Balrog cannot be killed by some of the easier methods used on normal creatures. Because of the Balrog's cunning, he will teleport away to another level if a spell such as destruction is used upon him, and the Balrog cannot be polymorphed, slept, confused, or genocided. Magical spells like coldball are effective against him, as are weapons, but he is difficult to kill, and if allowed to escape to another level can heal himself.

If you should actually survive the attempt of killing the Balrog, you will receive the status of WINNER. Since you have defeated the toughest creature alive, your character is ready to retire and cannot be saved. When you quit the game, your character receives a surprise bonus score.

11. Upon Death and Dying

If your character falls below 0 hit points, he has died and cannot be restored. A tombstone showing information about your character will be displayed. You are also permitted to get a record of your character, and all your equipment (identified) on the screen and printed to stdout.

Your character will leave behind a reduced save file, which contains only the monster memory and your option choices. It may be restored, in which case the new character is generated exactly as if the file was not there, but the new player will find his monster memory containing all the experience of past incarnations.

12. Wizards

There are rumors of moria Wizards which, if asked nicely, can explain details of the moria game that seem complicated to beginners.

Addendum #1: Experience

Written by Mike Marcelais
North Carolina School of Science And Math

1. Experience

All characters receive experience during the game. Experience determines your level, which determines hit points, mana points, spells, abilities, etc. The amount of experience required to advance a level is a base value (shown below) plus a penalty for race and class.

1.1. Calculating Experience Levels

Base Experience

LvExp to AdvLvExp to AdvLvExp to Adv

Maximum level is 40 and maximum experience is 9,999,999

There are percent penalties for various races and classes to help even them out. The table below lists all the penalties.

Human 0%Warrior0%

For example: For a 10'th level Gnomish Mage to achieve 11'th level he/she needs:

  500 *  1.25 * 1.30 = 812.5
(base) (gnome) (mage)

Note: Even for the worst case (Gnomish Ranger) it is still possible to achieve the 40th level.

(5,000,000 * 1.25 * 1.40 = 8,750,000 experience)

The program internally keeps experience out to the fourth decimal place even though it only displays the integer portion on the screen.

1.2. Getting Experience

There are many ways to gain experience. This list shows a few.

  1. Defeating monsters.
  2. Disarming traps.
  3. Picking locks.
  4. Using a scroll, potion, staff, wand, or rod for the first time and discovering what it did.
  5. Casting a spell successfully for the first time.
  6. Drinking a potion of gain experience or gain level.

1.3. Titles

Each experience level has a title which is displayed under your name and class. Below is a listing of all the titles for each level and class.

9Warrior(2nd)VisionistPriest(2nd)Common RogueScout(3rd)Keeper(8th)
19Champion-2TheurgistCurate(3rd)Master RogueTracker(3rd)Defender-1
20Champion-3ThaumaturgeCurate(4th)Expert RogueTracker(4th)Defender-2
21SuperheroMagicianCurate(5th)Senior RogueTracker(5th)Defender-3
22KnightEnchanterCurate(6th)Chief RogueTracker(6th)Defender-4
23Superior KntWarlockCurate(7th)Prime RogueTracker(7th)Defender-5
24Gallant KntSorcererCurate(8th)Low ThiefTracker(8th)Defender-6
25Knt ErrantNecromancerCurate(9th)Thief(1st)Tracker(9th)Defender-7
26Guardian KntMage(1st)Canon(1st)Thief(2nd)Guide(1st)Defender-8
31Lord(3rd)Wizard(1st)Low LamaThief(7th)Guide(6th)Warder(5th)
34Lord(6th)Wizard(4th)Lama-3High ThiefGuide(9th)Warder(8th)
35Lord(7th)Wizard(5th)High LamaMaster ThiefPathfinder-1Warder(9th)
36Lord(8th)Wizard(6th)Great LamaExecutionerPathfinder-2Guardian
37Lord(9th)Wizard(7th)PatriarchLow AssassinPathfinder-3Chevalier
38Lord GallantWizard(8th)High PriestAssassinRangerJusticiar
39Lord KeeperWizard(9th)Great PriestHigh AssassinHigh RangerPaladin
40Lord NobleWizard LordNoble PriestGuildmasterRanger LordHigh Lord

Addendum #2: Spells

Written by Mike Marcelais
North Carolina School of Science And Math

1. Magic Spells

All player characters except Warriors are able to learn some form of magic spells. There are two kinds of magic, Magic spells, which Mages, Rogues, and Rangers get, and prayers, which Priests and Paladins have. Each spell has a minimum level required for learning it, a mana score, which is the mana points required to cast it, and a failure percentage.

Mana points are determined by your experience level, and the level of your key stat. For Mages, Rogues, and Rangers, the key stat is intelligence, for Priests and Paladins the key stat is wisdom. The effect of your key stat is shown by the following table.

Stat LevelFactor
3 - 70
8 - 171
18 - 18/493/2
18/50 - 18/692
18/70 - 18/895/2
18/90 - 18/993

Your Mana score is the Factor times your experience level plus 1. If your key stat is 7 or less, your Mana score will be zero (not one) and you will not be able to use any spells. If you attempt to cast a spell that calls for more Mana than you have, the rate of failure is much greater than normal, you will faint for a few turns afterward, and you stand the chance of damaging your health.

1.1. Priest Spells

Priest spells are received from the character's deity. When the 'G' command is issued to learn new spells, spells are chosen randomly from the spells that you are able to cast. You need not have the book the spell is in to learn it, because your god gave it to you, but you do need the book to cast the spell. Failure percentages and spell effectiveness are based on Wisdom for priests and paladins.

1.1.1. Priest spell levels and Mana

These are tables of all the spells, with the mana and level of achievement for Priests and Paladins.

(Beginner's Handbook)PriestPaladin
ADetect Evil1111
BCure Light Wounds1222
DRemove Fear1253
ECall Light3254
FFind Traps3375
GDetect Doors/Stairs3375
HSlow Poison3397

(Words of Wisdom)PriestPaladin
ABlind Creature5497
CCure Medium Wounds54119
FCreate Food751310
GRemove Curse761311
HResist Heat and Cold771513

(Chants and Blessings)PriestPaladin
ANeutralize Poison961515
BOrb of Draining971715
CCure Serious Wounds971715
DSense Invisible1181915
EProtection from Evil1181915
GSense Surroundings13102317
HCure Critical Wounds13112520
ITurn Undead15122721

(Exorcisms and Dispellings)PriestPaladin
BDispel Undead17143124
DDispel Evil25203532
EGlyph of Warding33243736
FHoly Word39323938

1.1.2. Priest Spell Descriptions

This is a short description of each of the spells, listed alphabetically.

BlessImproves armor class and fighting
ability for a short period of time.
Blind CreatureBlinds a creature for a short period of time.
Call LightLights up an area.
ChantImproves armor class and fighting
ability for a medium period of time.
Create FoodCauses a food item to be dropped at your feet.
Cure Critical WoundsCures a very large number of hit points.
Cure Light WoundsCures a small number of hit points.
Cure Medium WoundsCures a medium number of hit points.
Cure Serious WoundsCures a large number of hit points.
Detect Doors/StairsFinds all the doors and stairs on the screen.
Detect EvilFinds all the evil creatures on the screen.
Dispel EvilAttempts to destroy the evil creature.
Dispel UndeadAttempts to destroy the undead creature.
EarthquakeRandomly toggles corridors into walls and vice versa.
Find TrapsLocates all the traps on the screen.
Glyph of WardingLeaves a 'Glyph' that monsters won't pass over.
HealRestores 200 Hit Points.
Holy WordDispels evil, removes fear, cures poison, restores 1000
HPs, restores all stats, and invulnerability for 3 turns.
Neutralize PoisonCures you of poison.
Orb of DrainingOffensive spell that drains levels from monsters.
PortalTeleports you a short distance away.
PrayerImproves armor class and fighting
ability for a long period of time.
Protection from EvilCauses evil creatures to do less damage to you.
Remove CurseRemoves {damned} objects that you are wielding.
Remove FearNegates the fear placed on you by an enemy.
Resist Heat and ColdReduce damage you suffer from heat or cold attacks.
SanctuaryCauses neighboring monsters to fall asleep for a while.
Sense InvisibleFinds all invisible creatures on the screen.
Sense SurroundingsMaps the dungeon appearing on the screen.
Slow PoisonReduces the rate HP are lost due to poison.
Turn UndeadAttempts to cause undead creatures to flee.

1.2. Mage Spells

Mage Spells are more powerful and offensive in nature than Priest spells. This offsets the fact that magicians are generally weaker than any other class. Because mage spells are learned though study, you must have the correct Magic book to learn and cast a spell. Learning spells can be banked up. For example: You are a second level Mage who had learned Magic Missile and can learn one more spell. You do not wish to learn Detect Monsters, Phase Door or Light Area. You can wait until you are third level and learn both the Cure Light Wounds and Stinking Cloud, both third level spells. Spell failure and effectiveness is based on intelligence for Mages, Rangers, and Rogues. Rangers can learn all but the most powerful offensive spell. Rogues can not learn any offensive spell.

1.2.1. Mage spell levels and Mana

AMagic Missile1131----
BDetect Monsters113251
CPhase Door123272
DLight Area125393
ECure Light Wounds3353114
FFind Hidden Traps/Doors3354135
GStinking Cloud3375----

(Magik I)MageRangerRogue
BLightning Bolt5497----
CTrap/Door Destruction5598177
DSleep I55118198
ECure Poison55119219
FTeleport Self761310----
GRemove Curse7613112310
HFrost Bolt761512----
ITurn Stone to Mud971513----

(Magik II)MageRangerRogue
ACreate Food9717172512
BRecharge Item I9717172715
CSleep II972117----
DPolymorph Other1172119----
FSleep III1372320----
GFire Bolt1592520----
HSlow Monster1792521----

(Mages Guide to Power)MageRangerRogue
AFrost Ball19122721----
BRecharge Item II21122923----
CTeleport Other23123125----
DHaste Self25123325----
EFire Ball29183525----
FWord of Destruction33213730----

Note: Rangers don't get spells until 3'rd level, Rogues 5'th level.

1.2.2. Mage Spell Descriptions

ConfusionConfuses a monster for a short time.
Create FoodCauses a food item to be dropped at your feet.
Cure Light WoundsRestores a small number of hit points.
Cure PoisonNeutralizes the poison running through your veins.
Detect MonstersDisplays all the monsters on the screen.
Find Hidden Traps/DoorsLocates all the secret traps and doors.
Fire BallShoots a ball of flame toward a monster.
Fire BoltShoots a bolt of flame toward a monster.
Frost BallShoots a ball of frost toward a monster.
Frost BoltShoots a bolt of frost toward a monster.
GenocideDestroys a particular monster on the level.
Haste SelfCauses you to move faster temporarily.
IdentifyIdentifies an unknown object in your pack.
Light AreaIlluminates the area you are in with light.
Lightning BoltShoots a bolt of lightning at your enemy.
Magic MissileTraditional bolt of magic used to damage enemies.
Phase DoorTeleports you a short distance.
Polymorph OtherPolymorphs a monster into a different creature.
Recharge Item I and IIRecharges a staff, rod, or wand.
Remove CurseAllows you to unwield {damned} items.
Sleep ICauses a monster of your choosing to fall asleep.
Sleep IICauses neighboring monsters to fall asleep.
Sleep IIICauses all monsters in range to fall asleep.
Slow MonsterCauses a monster to move slower.
Stinking CloudShoots a ball of noxious vapors to do damage.
Teleport SelfTeleports you to a new place on the level.
Teleport OtherTeleports an enemy to a new place on the level.
Trap/Door DestructionDestroys all neighboring doors and traps.
Turn Stone to MudCauses a wall (or other stone object) to melt.
Word of DestructionDestroys the entire screen.

For spells that come in numbered versions (Sleep I, II, III, etc), the higher numbers have a higher effectiveness, but greater chance of spell failure and greater Mana cost.

1.3. Using Offensive Spells Against Monsters

Monsters have a chance to save themselves from damage caused by offensive spells, just like the player has a chance to be saved from damage by monster spells. This chance is greater for higher level monsters than for lower level monsters. Also, some spells will never work against monsters whose level is higher than the character's experience level.

Many monsters are immune to certain kinds of attack, and will suffer little or no damage from such attacks. For example, a fire breathing dragon will suffer little damage from a fire ball, but will suffer greatly from a frost ball. Also, Undead creatures will not be affected by sleep spells, since they never sleep.

Formatted and modified for SDL/JS Moria by Donnie Russell II